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The Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) covers a vast geographical area and diverse political and socio-economic systems. Land rights in the MENA region are affected by violent conflicts, the impact of climate change and desertification, migration, population growth and urbanization. Rule of power, inefficient State institutions and services, a widening gap between rich and poor, and increasing landlessness are the results of the governance gap in many of the countries in the MENA region.

There is significant progress in modernizing land administration systems in most countries of the region. However, progress is mainly technology driven (e.g. the geo-industry) and too often not accompanied by progress in reforming land policies, improving the normative framework, involving civil society, and reengineering institutional processes. It is therefore important to facilitate reforms in the land sector, build professional capacities and generate an enabling environment towards improved land governance.

The article identifies major landrelated problems and also highlights best practices and work in progress. Lessons learned are identified and recommendations for continued reform processes are summarised.

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